Hydrogen Fuel Cell

Hydrogen Fuel Cells

EcoGeneration  *  Hydrogen Fuel  *  Net Zero Energy  *  Pollution Free Power  *  Solar Trigeneration

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"Changing the Way the World Makes and Uses Energy" SM


"Net Zero Energy" to Become $1.3 Trillion/year Industry by 2035

Austin, Texas


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Hydrogen Fuel Cell

What is a Hydrogen Fuel Cell?

Hydrogen's potential use in fuel and energy applications includes powering vehicles, running turbines or fuel cells to produce electricity, and generating heat and electricity for buildings. The current focus is on hydrogen's use in fuel cells.
A fuel cell works like a battery but does not run down or need recharging. It will produce electricity and heat as long as fuel (hydrogen) is supplied. A fuel cell consists of two electrodes—a negative electrode (or anode) and a positive electrode (or cathode)—sandwiched around an electrolyte. Hydrogen is fed to the anode, and oxygen is fed to the cathode. Activated by a catalyst, hydrogen atoms separate into protons and electrons, which take different paths to the cathode. The electrons go through an external circuit, creating a flow of electricity. The protons migrate through the electrolyte to the cathode, where they reunite with oxygen and the electrons to produce water and heat. Fuel cells can be used to power vehicles or to provide electricity and heat to buildings.


Hydrogen Fuel Cell

Battery Energy Storage  *  Bidirectional Inverters  *  EcoGeneration  *  Energy Efficiency Measures

Energy Master Planning  *  Energy Storage  *  Flywheel Energy Storage  *  Frequency Regulation

Net Energy Metering  *  Net Zero Energy  *  Net Zero Energy Systems  *  Solar Trigeneration

"Changing the Way the World Makes and Uses Energy"

Austin, Texas


Net Zero Energy Market to Become $1.3 Trillion/year Industry by 2035

Net Zero Energy
Buildings Are Coming;
What About The Buildings Already Standing?


The market for Distributed PV, also known as "Rooftop PV"
will be a $60 billion/year market by 2013!




What is a Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell?

Diagram: How a Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) works. A PAFC consists of liquid phosphoric acid electrolyte sandwiched between an anode (negatively charged electrode) and a cathode (positively charged electrode). The processes that take place in the fuel cell are as follows: 1. Hydrogen fuel is channeled through field flow plates to the anode on one side of the fuel cell, while oxygen from the air is channeled to the cathode on the other side of the cell.  2. At the anode, a platinum catalyst causes the hydrogen to split into positive hydrogen ions (protons) and negatively charged electrons.  3. The phosphoric acid electrolyte allows only the positively charged ions to pass through it to the cathode.  The negatively charged electrons must travel along an external circuit to the cathode, creating an electrical current.  4. At the cathode, the electrons and positively charged hydrogen ions combine with oxygen to form water, which flows out of the cell.Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells use liquid phosphoric acid as an electrolyte—the acid is contained in a Teflon-bonded silicon carbide matrix—and porous carbon electrodes containing a platinum catalyst. The chemical reactions that take place in the cell are shown in the diagram to the right.

The Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) is considered the "first generation" of modern fuel cells. It is one of the most mature cell types and the first to be used commercially, with over 200 units currently in use. This type of fuel cell is typically used for stationary power generation, but some Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells have been used to power large vehicles such as city buses.

Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells are more tolerant of impurities in fossil fuels that have been reformed into hydrogen than other fuel cells.

Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells are also less powerful than other fuel cells, given the same weight and volume. As a result, these fuel cells are typically large and heavy.  

Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells are also expensive.

Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells require an expensive platinum catalyst, which raises the cost of the fuel cell. A typical phosphoric acid fuel cell costs between $4,000 and $4,500 per kilowatt to operate.

What is a Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell?

Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC) evolved from work in the 1960's aimed at producing a fuel cell which would operate directly on coal. While direct operation on coal seems less likely today, operation on coal-derived fuel gases or natural gas is viable.


Hydrogen Fuel Cell

Buildings of the Future  *  EcoGeneration  *  Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell  *  Net Zero Energy  *  Solar Cogeneration

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About us:

The founder of the Renewable Energy Institute (REI) was first involved in Net Zero Energy buildings and Solar Trigeneration sm energy system in 2001 - 2002.  This started with family-owned real estate developments in Northern and Southern California.  This interest was accelerated when REI's founder was introduced to the President of a solar company in Los Angeles and their client, the Audubon Nature Center at Deb's Park (Los Angeles) that was planning to build a new 5,000 sf office and conference center. Except, the new building for the Audubon Nature Center was about 1/2 mile from the end of the power lines and a very costly extension of the power lines to their new facility forced them to consider a solar solution. When the Audubon Nature Center's new 5,000 sf office and conference center was completed in 2003, the facility not only featured the Solar Trigeneration sm energy system - they were awarded one of the first Platinum LEED Awards by the USGBC - and the powerlines were still 1/2 mile away! To this day, 100% of the power and energy for the Audubon Nature Center's building is supplied by the Solar Trigeneration sm energy system - whether at 12 noon, or 12 midnite.  (The Audubon's facility also includes a battery energy storage system for back-up power generated by the Rooftop PV panels as well as a thermal energy storage system that stores the excess hot water generated by the evacuated tube collectors).

These early projects led to more client inquiries and engagements with real estate developers, architects and building owners in Southern California, Louisiana and Texas and the advent of a growing Net Zero Energy industry along with Solar Cogeneration sm & Solar Trigeneration sm energy systems. This culminated in a family-owned 200 (Net Zero Energy) home real estate development in Desert Hot Springs which has been approved but not yet constructed. 

During this time, the REI's Founder became a volunteer and Advisor to the University of Texas' Solar Decathlon Competition. He coordinated the donation of the same solar thermal system used at the Audubon Nature Center's facility in Los Angeles, for UT's entry in the 2002 Solar Decathlon Competition in Washington, D.C.  UT's entry in the Solar Decathlon Competition placed 1st in the domestic hot water competition that year (2002) and 4th overall, out of 20 universities that had entered. 

In 2006, after Hurricane Kattrina devastated New Orleans, the REI was formed and several of the REI's board members and a Professor from the University of Texas School of Architecture formed a design team to enter the Brad Pitt/Global Green Rebuild New Orleans Competition.  Our entry also focused on sustainable building solutions and materials as well as the Net Zero Energy concepts, incorporating once again, a Solar Trigeneration sm energy system. 

Today, the REI "Flagship" has chartered the Renewable Energy Institute in Florida, with discussions to open REI state chapters in Arizona, California, Hawaii, Minnesota and Oregon. 

The REI supports greater use of Net Zero Energy systems by architects, builders, homeowners and owners of commercial buildings. This includes "upgrading" homes and commercial buildings to Net Zero Energy.  The REI provides Net Zero Energy; advertising, business development, conferences, e-commerce, education, marketing, online marketing, public relations, renewable energy, sales and strategic marketing solutions for architects, builders, cities, colleges, HVAC contractors, Net Zero Energy developers, real estate developers and universities.


We deliver solutions:

Business Development
Capital Access
Marketing Strategies
Investment opportunities
Investor inquiries
Project Development
Public Relations
Sales Solutions
Strategic Marketing

That produce results

Increased sales
New customers
Greater market share
Competitive advantage
Increased shareholder value


We support the Renewable Energy Institute by donating a portion of our profits to the Renewable Energy Institute in their efforts to reduce fossil fuel use by transitioning to Renewable Energy Technologies and reducing/eliminating Carbon Emissions, Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

The Renewable Energy Institute is "Changing The Way The World Makes and Uses Energy" SM by providing research & development, funding and resources that reduce the cost of Renewable Energy Technologies and making a faster transition to Carbon Free Energy, Clean Power Generation, & Pollution Free Power."


  Renewable Energy Institute

"Leading the Renewable Energy Revolution"


Hydrogen Fuel Cell






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